Jumat, 16 November 2012

Penjelasan Reported Speech




 Direct dan Indirect Speech merupakan materi grammar bahasa Inggris yang banyak diajarkan di jenjang SMP dan SMA. Direct dan Indirect Speech atau yang biasa disebut Reported Speech ini menjadi langganan bentuk soal yang sering keluar di UN baik untuk SMP dan SMA.

Atas dasar begitu pentingnya materi Direct dan Indirect Speech ini, maka pada kesempatan kali ini penulis memberikan penjelasan mengenai Direct dan Inderct tersebut dengan lengkap kepada pengunjung sekalian. Semoga bermanfaat.


Direct dan Indirect Speech

Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung, ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan struktur kalimat, tensis, pronoun (kata ganti orang), keterangan waktu dan tempat (Adverbs of time and place).

Sebelum melangkah jauh ke sub-pembahasan tersebut di atas, alangkah baiknya ada juga mengerti tentang apa yang dimaksud Reporting Speech dan Reported Speech.

Reporting Speech adalah bagian dalam kalimat direct speech yang di tandai oleh tanda petik (") dan di akhiri oleh tanda petik (").
  • He said, "I have a present for you in my bag."
  • He asked me, "why do you come late."
Sedangkan Reported Speech adalah baigan awal dari kalimat direct speech.
  • He said, "I have a present for you in my bag."
  • He asked me, "why do you come late."
Untuk itu, pada artikel ini penulis sengaja membagi beberpa sub-penjelasan mengenai direct dan indirect speech berdasakan perubahan-perbuahan di atas.


1. Perubahan Stuktur kalimat

Jika kita lihat pada kalimat direct speech, terdapat ciri-ciri yang identik yaitu terdapat tanda petik ("). Tada petik tersebut merupakan cara yang sering digunakan untuk membedakan mana yang direct atau yang indirect.

Ketika klimat direct speech tersebut dirubah menjadi kalimat indirect speech, tanda petik tersebut pun dihilangkan atau digantikan dengan kata "that" atau "to" (untuk kalimat perintah). Misalnya:

NoDirect SpeechIndirect Speech
01He said, "I have a present for you in my bag."He said that he had a present for me in his bag.
02He asked me, "why do you come late."He asked me why I came late.
03He orderd me, "don't bring a bag."He ordered me to didn't bring a bag.

Perubahan struktur kalimat juga terjadi jika pada direct speech menggunakan kalimat tanya, maka akan dirubah menjadi kalimat afirmatif (berita).

Untuk kalimat direct speech yang menggunakan kalimat tanya "yes-no question" maka akan dirubah menjadi if/whether. Contohnya:

NoDirect SpeechIndirect Speech
01They asked me, "Do you want to join us to play football?"They asked me if/whether I want to join them to play football.
02He asked me, "Does she want to mary me?"He asked me if/whether she wants to mary her.

Untuk kalimat direct speech yang menggunakan 5W1H question (Why, Who, What, When, WHere, How), maka akan dirubah menjadi kalimat afirmatif dengan cara sebagai berikut:

NoDirect SpeechIndirect Speech
01He asked me, "why do you come late?"He asked me why you came late.
02He asked me, "what does she eat?"He asked me what she ate.
03He asked me, "when did you come?"He asked me when I came.
04He asked me, "who are you?"He asked me who I was.
05He asked me, "who is she?"He asked me who she was.

2. Perubahan Tensis (Tenses)

Seperti yang dijelaskan dimuka, perbuahan dari direct ke indirect juga mempengaruhi tensis yang digunakan. Kebanyakan siswa sulit memahami perubahan yang satu ini. Untuk itu, penulis sengaja membuatkan tabel perubahan tensis agar mudah dimengerti.

Di bawah ini adalah tabel Perubahan Tenses dari direct speech ke indirect speech.

NoDirect SpeechIndirect Speech
01Simple PresentSimple Past
02Present ContinuousPast Continuous
03Present FuturePast Future
04Present PerfectPast Perfect
05Present Perfect ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
06Simple PastPast Perfect
07Past ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous

Atau bisa lebih dipermudah dengan tabel berikut di bawah ini, yaitu:

NoDirect SpeechIndirect Speech
01V1 (eat)V2 (ate)
02V2 (ate)Had + V3 (had eaten)
03Am/is/areWas/were
04Do/doesDid
05Do/does notDid not
06Did notHad not + V3
07Was/wereHad been
08Am/is/are + V-ingWas/were + V-ing
09Was/were +V-ingHad been + V-ing
10Has/have + V3Had + V3
11Will/shall/can/may/mustWould/should/could/might/had to
12Could/might/should/would + V1/beCould/might/should/would + have+ V3/been

3. Perubahan Pronoun

Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di direct speech (kalimat langsung) yang tentunya mempengaruhi perubahan pronoun pada indirect speech (kalimat tidak langsung).


  • Kata ganti orang pertama (I dan We) pada reporting speech (lihat penjelasan di awal) berubah sesuai subjek yang ada di reproted speech.
  • NoDirect SpeechIndirect Speech
    01He said, ‘I am busy.’He said that he was busy.
    02She said, ‘I am unwell.’She said that she was unwell.
    03I said, ‘I will be late.’I said that I would be late.
    04They said, ‘We will not permit this.’They said that they would not permit that.
    05We said, ‘We need to buy some clothes.’We said that we needed to buy some clothes.

  • Kata ganti orang kedua (You) di reporting speech pada direct speech berubah sesuai objek pada reported speech.
  • NoDirect SpeechIndirect Speech
    01He said to me, ‘You have to come with me.’He told me that I had to go with him.
    02She said to me, ‘You can go.’She told me that I could go.
    03She said to him, ‘You can go.’She told him that he could go.
  • Kata ganti orang ketiga (Hesheit dan they) pada direct speech tidak mengalami perubahan ketika dirubah ke indirect speech.
  • NoDirect SpeechIndirect Speech
    01He said, ‘She is a good girl.’He said that she was a good girl.
    02She said, ‘They have invited us.’She said that they had invited them.
    03They said, ‘He does not have the necessary qualifications.’They said that he did not have the necessary qualifications.
4. Perubahan Keterangan waktu dan tempat (Adverbs of time and place)

Tidak cuma itu, dalam perubahan dari direct speech ke indirect speech juga mempengaruhi adverbs khusunya adverb of time (keterangan waktu) dan adverb of place (keterangan tempat). Untuk itu anda wajib memahami tabel di bawah ini.

NoDirect SpeechIndirect Speech
01NowThen
02To dayThat day
03TomorrowThe next day
The day after
The following day
A day later
04Next ...The ... after
The following ...
05Last ...The ... before
The Previous ...
06... ago... before
... earlier
07YesterdayThe day before
The previous day
The preceeding day
08The day before yesterdayTwo day before
09HereThere
10ThisThat
11TheseThose


Di bawah ini adalah contoh-contoh direct dan indirect speech untuk menambah pemahaman mengenai penjelasan di atas.


Direct SpeechIndirect Speech
(+)He said, “I have a present for you in my bag.hereHe said that he had a present for me in his bag there.
(-)

He said, “I do not have a present for you in my bag”


He said that he did not have a present for me in his bag.
(?)

He asked, “Do I have a present for you in my bag?”


He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his bag.
(?)

He asked me, “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my bag?


 He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his bag.
(!)
He ordered/commanded me, “Bring my bag here now!”

He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then.
(!)He ordered me, “Don’t bring your bag here!”He ordered me not to bring my bag there.

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